Risk factors for adverse drug events in hospitalized patients: an overview of systematic reviews
Objectives: To perform an overview in order to identify risk factors related to the development of Adverse Drug Events (ADE) in hospitalized patients. Methods: A search for systematic reviews and meta-analyses was carried out in the Pubmed, Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo databases, until August 19, 2021. The search strategies contained the following MeSH descriptors: Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions; Inpatients; Hospitalization; Hospitals; Hospital; Logistics Models; Risk Factors; Drug Therapy; Risk Assessment; Pharmacy Service, Adverse Drug Events; Adverse Drug Reactions; Medication Errors; Risk; Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. From this, publications in English, Portuguese or Spanish that exposed possible risk factors for ADE during hospitalization were included. Works were excluded when: characterized as narrative reviews, expert opinions, editorials, overview and reviews without a transparent search strategy; restricted to certain drug classes, patient groups or clinical features; reported only the assessment of Medication Errors (ME); they were duplicated; did not provide abstract and full text. Two independent authors performed the selection of studies, a third researcher was requested when there was disagreement. The studies that met the criteria for data extraction underwent a thematic analysis and, based on reading, the risk factors for ADE were raised. Results: Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria: ten systematic reviews and one meta-analysis. “Number of prescribed drugs” (OR: 1,21; CI95%: 1,03-1,44; p: 0,024), “Advanced age” (OR: 2,12; CI 95%: 1,70-2,65; p: 0,000) and “Comorbidities” were the most cited risk factors, other characteristics described less frequently were “Hospital Length (HL)”, “Allergies” and “Female sex”. Furthermore, it has been observed that the use of certain medications can increase the patient’s risk. Conclusions: The realization of overview made it possible to identify risk factors for ADE, which can help hospital teams to direct their care actions to patients at higher risk of developing such events.
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